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blood typing

Câu hỏi:

  1. Vì sao truyền hồng cầu lắng thì an toàn hơn truyền máu toàn phần?
  2. Truyền HC lắng dở hơn truyền máu tươi 1 điều. Đó là gì?
  3. Tại sao ghép allograft thì phải cho thuốc ức chế miễn dịch?
  4. Tại sao ghép xenograft thì luôn luôn bị thải ghép?
  5. Tại sao người đã xẩy thai 2-3 lần thì khó có thể có thai tiếp an toàn?


        I. Ôn lại IgM, IgA, IgG (học kỹ), IgE, HLA

  1. Immunoglobulin M, or IgM for short, is a basic antibody that is produced by B cells. IgM is by far the physically largest antibody in the human circulatory system. It is the first antibody to appear in response to initial exposure to antigen. The spleen is the major site of specific IgM production. IgM antibodies appear early in the course of an infection and usually reappear, to a lesser extent, after further exposure. IgM antibodies do not pass across the human placenta (only isotype IgG).
  2. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an antibody that plays a critical role in mucosal immunity. More IgA is produced in mucosal linings than all other types of antibody combined. Neisseria gonorrhœae (which causes gonorrhea), Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae type B all release a protease which destroys IgA. IgA nephropathy is caused by IgA deposits in the kidneys. It is not yet known why IgA deposits occur in this chronic disease. Some theories suggest an abnormality of the immune system results in these deposits.
  3. IgG molecules are synthesized and secreted by plasma B cells. Antibodies are major components of the immune system. IgG is the main antibody isotype found in blood and extracellular fluid allowing it to control infection of body tissues. IgG is also associated with Type II and Type III Hypersensitivity.
  4. IgE also plays an essential role in type I hypersensitivity, which manifests various allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and some types of chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis. IgE also plays a pivotal role in allergic conditions, such as anaphylactic reactions to certain drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used in specific desensitization immunotherapy.
  5. The immune system uses the HLAs to differentiate self cells and non-self cells.


II. Ôn lại nhóm máu: blood typing and blood matching.


Type O red blood cells have no agglutinogens and therefore do not react with either the anti-A or the anti-B agglutinins. Type A blood has A agglutinogens and therefore agglutinates with anti-A agglutinins. Type B blood has B agglutinogens and agglutinates with anti-B agglutinins. Type AB blood has both A and B agglutinogens and agglutinates with both types of agglutinins.


III. Autografts, Isografts, Allografts, and Xenografts


A transplant of a tissue or whole organ from one part of the same animal to another part is called an autograft; from one identical twin to another, an isograft; from one human being to another or from any animal to another animal of the same species, an allograft; and from a lower animal to a human being or from an animal of one species to one of another species, a xenograft.





Đăng bởi: ycantho - Ngày đăng: 07/11/2013
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