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- Khi truyền máu, ghép mô, ghép cơ quan, thậm chí đưa tinh trùng vào trứng-buồng tử cung…hay tất cả các bệnh viêm± nhiễm, bệnh tự miễn, bệnh ung thư, thì cân nhắc HLA. - Khi cần đánh giá bệnh tự miễn thì cân nhắc ANA.

I. HLA (human leukocyte antigen)

1. HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (A, B, and C) present peptides from inside the cell (including viral peptides if present). These peptides are produced from digested proteins that are broken down in the proteasomes. In general, these particular peptides are smallpolymers, about 9 amino acids in length. Foreign antigens attract killer T-cells (also calledCD8 positive- or cytotoxic T-cells) that destroy cells.

2. HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (DP, DM, DOA, DOB, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell to T-lymphocytes. These particular antigens stimulate the multiplication of T-helper cells, which in turn stimulate antibody-producing B-cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. Self-antigens are suppressed by suppressor T-cells.

3. HLAs corresponding to MHC class III encode components of the complement system.

II. ANA (Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as antinuclear factor or ANF) are autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell nucleus.

In normal individuals, the immune system produces antibodies to foreign proteins (antigens) but not to human proteins (autoantigens). In some individuals, antibodies to human antigens are produced.

This allows the use of ANAs in the diagnosis of some autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren’s syndrome, scleroderma, mixed connective tissue disease, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, autoimmune hepatitis[6] and drug induced lupus.

Đăng bởi: ycantho - Ngày đăng: 23/11/2013
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