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Thuốc: hình dạng và công thức của thuốc.

1. Tablet: Viên nén. Gồm:

a. 5-10% of the drug (active substance);

b. 80% of fillers, disintegrants, lubricants, glidants, and binders; and

c. 10% of compounds which ensure easy disintegration, disaggregation, and dissolution of the tablet in the stomach or the intestine. The disintegration time can be modified for a rapid effect or for sustained release. Special coatings can make the tablet resistant to the stomach acids such that it only disintegrates in the duodenum, jejunum and colon as a result of enzyme action or alkaline pH.

2. Pill: Viên tròn.

Pills can be coated with sugar, varnish, or wax to disguise the taste.

3. Capsule: Viên nhộng.

A capsule is a gelatinous envelope enclosing the active substance. Capsules can be designed to remain intact for some hours after ingestion in order to delay absorption. They may also contain a mixture of slow- and fast-release particles to produce rapid and sustained absorption in the same dose.

4. Sustained release (Thuốc phóng thích chậm):

Some tablets are designed with an osmotically active core, surrounded by an impermeable membrane with a pore in it. This allows the drug to percolate out from the tablet at a constant rate as the tablet moves through the digestive tract.

5. Parenteral formulations (Dạng tiêm truyền):

These are also called injectable formulations and are used with intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intra-articular administration. The drug is stored in liquid or if unstable, lyophilized form. Many parenteral formulations are unstable at higher temperatures and require storage at refrigerated or sometimes frozen conditions. The logistics process of delivering these drugs to the patient is called the cold chain. The cold chain can interfere with delivery of drugs, especially vaccines, to communities where electricity is unpredictable or nonexistent. NGOs like the Gates Foundation are actively working to find solutions.

These may include lyophilized formulations which are easier to stabilize at room temperature. Most protein formulations are parenteral due to the fragile nature of the molecule which would be destroyed by enteric administration. Proteins have tertiary and quaternary structures which can be degraded or cause aggregation at room temperature. This can impact the safety and efficacy of the medicine.

6. Liquid (Thuốc dung dịch):

Liquid drugs are stored in vials, IV bags, ampoules, cartridges, and prefilled syringes. As with solid formulations, liquid formulations combine the drug product with a variety of compounds to ensure a stable active medication following storage. These include solubilizers, stabilizers, buffers, tonicity modifiers, bulking agents, viscosity enhancers/reducers, surfactants, chelating agents, and adjuvants.

7. Topical formulations (Dùng trên da):

a. Cream (Kem) - Emulsion of oil and water in approximately equal proportions. Penetrates stratum corneum outer layer of skin well.

b. Ointment (Dầu nhờn)- Combines oil (80%) and water (20%). Effective barrier against moisture loss.

c. Gel - Liquefies upon contact with the skin.

d. Paste - Combines three agents - oil, water, and powder; an ointment in which a powder is suspended.

e. Powder - A finely subdivided solid substance.

8. Inhaled (Khí dung).

Đăng bởi: ycantho - Ngày đăng: 03/11/2014
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