Because the Constitution vests all military authority in Congress and the president, the statutory authority of the secretary of defense is derived from their constitutional authorities. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) is responsible for policy development, planning, resource management and program evaluation. The shortest-serving secretary of defense is Elliot Richardson, who served 114 days and then was appointed U.S. attorney general amid the resignations of the Watergate Scandal. Some of those high-ranking officials, civil and military (outside of OSD and the Joint Staff) are: the secretary of the Army, secretary of the Navy, and secretary of the Air Force, Army chief of staff, commandant of the Marine Corps, chief of naval operations, Air Force chief of staff, chief of space operations, and chief of the National Guard Bureau and the combatant commanders of the Combatant Commands. The Department of Defense is composed of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and the Joint Staff (JS), Office of the Inspector General (DODIG), the Combatant Commands, the Military Departments (Department of the Army (DA), Department of the Navy (DON) & Department of the Air Force (DAF)), the Defense Agencies and DoD Field Activities, the National Guard Bureau (NGB), and such other offices, agencies, activities, organizations, and commands established or designated by law, or by the president or by the secretary of defense. The Secretary of Defense is sixth in line to the United States … Com­bin­ing his two non-se­quen­tial ser­vices as Sec­re­tary of De­fense, the sec­ond longest serv­ing is Don­ald Rums­feld, who served just ten days fewer than Mc­Na­mara. It renamed the Department of War the Department of the Army, and added both it and the Department of the Navy to a newly established National Military Establishment (NME). In addition, there is the Joint Meritorious Unit Award (JMUA), which is the only ribbon (as in non-medal) and unit award issued to joint DoD activities, also issued in the name of the secretary of defense. Mark Esper has formally stepped down from his role as acting defense secretary Monday after the Senate received his nomination from the White … The name of the principally military staff organization, organized under the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, is the Joint Staff (JS). It is hereby expressed as the sense of the Congress that after General Marshall leaves the office of Secretary of Defense, no additional appointments of military men to that office shall be approved. Acting 16th: William Howard Taft IV 3. The Secretary of State for Defence has overall responsibility for the business of the department. [25] Since the creation of the position in 1947, such a waiver has only been approved twice, for Army General George Marshall in 1950 and Marine Corps General Jim Mattis in 2017.[26]. Since the release of the candidates for the defense secretary position, Biden has steadily moved forward with naming much of his national security team, which includes Tony Blinken for Secretary of State, Jake Sullivan for National Security Adviser, Arvil Haines for Director of National Intelligence, Alejandro Mayorkas for Department of Homeland Security Secretary, Linda Thomas- … The departmental predecessor was the Secretary of War. The role was made in 1947. He or she also is the main advisor to the president on all Department of Defense matters and related topics. Mahan, Erin R., and Jeffrey A. Larsen, eds. .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Democratic In Executive Order 13533 of March 1, 2010, President Barack Obama modified the line of succession regarding who would act as the secretary of defense in the event of a vacancy or incapacitation, thus reversing the changes made by President George W. Bush in Executive Order 13394 as to the relative positions of the secretaries of the military departments. Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 describes the organizational relationships within the Department, and is the foundational issuance for delineating the major functions of the Department. President Donald Trump announced on Twitter Monday that he has fired Secretary of Defense Mark Esper, and that Christopher Miller, who serves … US Secretaries of Defense. Mr. Christopher C. Miller is the Acting Secretary of Defense, appointed Nov. 9, 2020.. Miller is a longtime veteran of the special operations community who retired from the Army in 2014 as a colonel. A deputy and several assistant secretaries are answerable to the secretary. § 132) and the second-highest-ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America.. The deputy secretary of defense (acronym: DepSecDef) is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. As the head of DoD, all officials, employees and service members are "under" the secretary of defense. On Wednesday, President-elect Joe Biden announced his nominee for defense secretary would be retired Army Gen. Lloyd J. Austin III. (This is not counting deputy secretaries of defense William P. Clements and William Howard Taft IV, who each served a few weeks as temporary/acting secretary of defense). The general trend since 1949 has been to further centralize management in the Department of Defense, elevating the status and authorities of civilian OSD appointees and defense-wide organizations at the expense of the military departments and the services within them. The secretary of defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the United States Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the U.S. Secretaries of Defense. The War Department, headed by the secretary of war, was created by Act of Congress in 1789 and was responsible for both the Army and Navy until the founding of a separate Department of the Navy in 1798. It is one of the longest serving continuously operating offices in the Office of the Secretary of Defense and has been recognized for the excellence of its publications and programs for over a half century. A member of the president's cabinet, the secretary heads the Department of Defense, created in 1947. The secretary of defense's position of command and authority over the U.S. military is second only to that of the president.This position corresponds to what is generally known as a defense minister in many other … The secretary administers the national military budget and holds authority over personnel, supplies and other aspects of defense. 17th: Dick Cheney 4. 25th: Ash Carter 10. 23rd: Leon Panetta 8. 1st Acting 26th: Patrick M. Shanahan 12. 1. 13 hours ago. For the DoD intelligence programs the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence have the principal oversight role. [10] To ensure civilian control of the military, no one may be appointed as the secretary of defense within seven years of serving as a commissioned officer of a regular (i.e., non-reserve) component of an armed force. In this July 16, 2019 photo, Secretary of the Army and Secretary of Defense nominee Mark Esper testifies before a Senate Armed Services Committee confirmation hearing on Capitol Hill in Washington. The last major revision of the statutory framework concerning the position was done in the Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. Best Defense The best and worst defense secretaries, as rated by Foreign Policy’s Best Defense All the news stories about Robert Gates’s memoirs, to … Recommendations for the Medal of Honor (MOH), formally endorsed in writing by the secretary of the military department concerned and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, are processed through the under secretary of defense for personnel and readiness, and such recommendations be must approved by the secretary of defense before it can be handed over to the president, who is the final approval authority for the MOH, although it is awarded in the name of Congress. [8] The secretary of defense is appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, and is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council. Combining his two non-sequential services as the secretary of defense, the second-longest serving is Donald Rumsfeld, who served just ten days fewer than McNamara. The same statute further designates the secretary as "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense". Here is a list of US Secretaries of Defense. § 113 provides that "subject to the direction of the President", its occupant has "authority, direction and control over the Department of Defense". Also, such an official is responsible for the department's resource management and fiscal and program evaluation. The secretary of defense is a statutory member of the National Security Council. The Secretary of Defense anticipates an increase in requests for assistance from interagency and civilian sources, as well as, increasing challenges to maintain the readiness of our force and the health of our military families. Combining his two non-sequential services as the secretary of defense, the second-longest serving is Donald Rumsfeld, … [21], On November 9, 2020, President Trump tweeted that Christopher C. Miller would be the acting secretary of defense, effective immediately,[22] bypassing Deputy Defense Secretary David Norquist, who is in line to fill the position under the Vacancies Reform Act.[23][24]. President-elect Joe Biden plans to name Lloyd Austin, the retired U.S. Army four-star general, as his pick for secretary of defense in his incoming administration, two … Biden Facing Growing Pressure Over Secretary of Defense Pick This Dec. 7, 2011 file photo shows former U.S. Defense Undersecretary Michele Flournoy, preparing for a … 24th: Chuck Hagel 9. Joe Biden on Wednesday formally nominated Lloyd Austin, a retired four-star army general and the former commander of the American military effort in Iraq, to be his defense secretary… The secretary of defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (10 U.S.C. The secretary's principally civilian staff element is called the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and is composed of the deputy secretary of defense (DEPSECDEF) and five under secretaries of defense in the fields of acquisition, technology & logistics, comptroller/chief financial officer, intelligence, personnel & readiness, and policy; several assistant secretaries of defense; other directors and the staffs under them. § 113) the head of the Department of Defense, "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to Department of Defense", and has "authority, direction and control over the Department of Defense". The secretary is one of only five or six civilians—the others being the president, the three "service secretaries" (the secretary of the Army, secretary of the Navy, and secretary of the Air Force), and the secretary of homeland security (when the United States Coast Guard is under the United States Department of Homeland Security and has not been transferred to the Department of the Navy under the Department of Defense)—authorized to act as convening authority in the military justice system for General Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. [11], Subject only to the orders of the president, the secretary of defense is in the chain of command and exercises command and control, for both operational and administrative purposes, over all Department of Defense forces – the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Space Force – as well as the U.S. Coast Guard when its command and control is transferred to the Department of Defense. To address this and other problems, the National Security Act was amended in 1949 to further consolidate the national defense structure in order to reduce interservice rivalry, directly subordinate the secretaries of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force to the secretary of defense in the chain of command, and rename the National Military Establishment as the Department of Defense, making it one Executive Department.   Political Independent / Unknown, The secretary of defense is sixth in the presidential line of succession, following the secretary of the treasury and preceding the attorney general.[65]. Army Distinguished Service Medal, Navy Distinguished Service Medal & Air Force Distinguished Service Medal), the DSSM corresponds to the Legion of Merit, the DMSM to the Meritorious Service Medal, the JSCM to the service commendation medals, and the JSAM to the achievement medals issued by the services. List of secretaries of defense. § 822: article 22, UCMJ), Special Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. This list includes the newest Secretary of Defense, General James Mattis. With retired Gen. Lloyd J. Austin III’s nomination to be the first Black defense secretary, the Pentagon comes face to face with its record as a place where people of color struggle to climb. The secretary of defense is the sixth in line for the presidency. [17][18][19] The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the principal military adviser to the secretary of defense and the president; while the chairman may assist the secretary and president in their command functions, the chairman is not in the chain of command. The Historical Office of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) dates to 1949. WASHINGTON (AP) — President-elect Joe Biden will nominate retired four-star Army general Lloyd J. Austin to be secretary of defense, according to four people familiar with the decision. Leader of the United States armed forces following the president, (including Defense Agencies and DoD Field Activities), List of United States Secretaries of Defense by time in office, Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986, Organizational structure of the United States Department of Defense, Defense Agencies and DoD Field Activities, under secretary of defense for personnel and readiness, House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, assistant to the president for national security affairs, United States Department of Homeland Security, Level I position of the Executive Schedule, Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, Director of Defense Research and Engineering, General Counsel of the Department of Defense, Director of Operational Test and Evaluation, Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation, Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States, Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System, National Security Strategy (United States), Office of the Secretary of Defense Identification Badge, Secretary of Defense Employer Support Freedom Award, Unconventional warfare (United States Department of Defense doctrine), US Commission on National Security/21st Century, "Positional Colors for the Department of Defense", "3 U.S. Code § 19 – Vacancy in offices of both President and Vice President; officers eligible to act", "Trump tweets that Defense Secretary Mark Esper has been 'terminated, "Esper's firing raises concerns about Trump's plans for the Pentagon in final weeks", "Waiver of Statutory Qualifications Relating to Prior Military Service of the Secretary of Defense", "Why Generals Need Congressional Waivers To Become Defense Secretary", Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 Functions of the Department of Defense and Its Major Components, "James V. Forrestal – Harry S. Truman Administration", "Louis A. Johnson – Harry S. Truman Administration", "George C. Marshall – Harry S. Truman Administration", "Robert A. Lovett – Harry S. Truman Administration", "Charles E. Wilson – Dwight D. Eisenhower Administration", "Neil H. McElroy -Dwight D. Eisenhower Administration", "Thomas S. Gates, Jr. – Dwight D. Eisenhower Administration", "Robert S. McNamara – John F. Kennedy / Lyndon Johnson Administration", "Clark M. Gifford – Lyndon Johnson Administration", "Melvin R. Laird – Richard Nixon Administration", "Elliot L. Richardson – Richard Nixon Administration", "James R. Schlesinger – Richard Nixon / Gerald Ford Administration", "Donald H. Rumsfeld – Gerald Ford Administration", "Harold Brown – James Carter Administration", "Caspar W. Weinberger – Ronald Reagan Administration", "Frank C. Carlucci – Ronald Reagan Administration", "Richard B. 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