II. The adjectives of anatomy:

1. Superior and inferior :
As with other vertebrates, two of the most obvious extremes are the "top" and the "bottom" of the organism. In standard anatomical position, these correspond to the head and feet, respectively in humans. The head end is referred to as the superior end ( Latin superior : "above"), while the feet are referred to as the inferior end (Latin inferior : "below"). Thus, the axis formed by joining the two is the superior-inferior axis .
As with other vertebrate terminology, there are synonymous terms for superior and inferior. The terms cranial and cephalic are often encountered. "Cranial", as a reference to the skull, is fairly commonly used, whereas "cephalic" is uncommonly used. The term "rostral" is rarely used in human anatomy, referring more to the front of the face than the superior aspect of the organism. This term is more applicable in organisms with longer heads, such as equids . Similarly, the term caudal is occasionally used in human anatomy, and the cranio-caudal axis is occasionally encountered. Generally, this usage would only be used with respect to the head and main body (trunk), and not when considering the limbs.
As with vertebrate directional terms, superior and inferior can be used in a relative sense in humans, but can not be uniformly applied to other organisms with varying normal anatomical positions. For example, the shoulders are superior to the navel , but inferior to the eyes in humans. In any tetrapod, the shoulders are cranial to the belly, but caudal to the eyes.

2. Anterior and posterior :
In human anatomical usage, anterior refers to the "front" of the individual, and is synonymous with ventral , other than in the head. Similarly, posterior , refers to the "back" of the subject, and is synonymous with dorsal , other than in the head.The terms "dorsal" and "ventral" are used in human anatomy, but infrequently when referring to the body as a whole.The anteroposterior axis is preferred usage for describing the axis connecting the front and the back in humans.
"Anterior" and "posterior" can also be used as relative terms. Thus, the eyes are posterior to the nose , but anterior to the back of the head in humans.

3. Left and right (lateral), and medial :
Left and right lateral are used in the same sense as they are in other vertebrates, as is medial . The left-right axis is rarely used in medicine; instead, the mediolateral axis is used almost exclusively.
Appendages
As in other vertebrates, the terms " proximal " and " distal " are used to describe the point of attachment to, and part of an appendage furthest away from, the body, respectively. However, other terms are used for direction in the appendages, given the unique position of the limbs (in standard anatomical position) in humans.

4. Outer and inner:

The outside is close to the body surface, inside is close to the central body.
Surface and other landmarks in humans:
Axillary lines .
In humans, reference may take origin from superficial anatomy , made to landmarks which are on the skin or visible underneath. As with planes, lines and points are imaginary. Các ví dụ bao gồm:
• The midaxillary line , a line running vertically down the surface of the body passing through the apex of the axilla (armpit). Parallel are the anterior axillary line , which passes through the anterior axillary skinfold, and the posterior axillary line , which passes through the posterior axillary skinfold.
• The mid-clavicular line , a line running vertically down the surface of the body passing through the midpoint of the clavicle .
• The mid-pupillary line , a line running vertically down the face through the midpoint of the pupil when looking directly forwards.
• The mid-inguinal point , a point midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic symphysis .
o mid-point of inguinal ligament = mid-point between anterior superior iliac spine and pubic tubercle
• Tuffier's line , which is a transverse line passing across the lumbar spine between the posterior iliac crests .
• Mid-ventral line , the intersection between the ventral skin and the median plane.

Figure 12: The directional terms used in a human hand.

In standard anatomical position, the palms of the hands point anteriorly. Thus, anterior can be used to describe the palm of the hand, and posterior can be used to describe the back of the hand and arm.
However, presumably for improved clarity, the directional term palmar ( Latin palma ; palm of the hand) is usually used for the anterior of the hand, and dorsal is used to describe the back of the hand. Thus, by connecting the extremes, dorsopalmar axis is formed. Most commonly, "dorsopalmar" is used when describing the hand, although it is sometimes applied to the arm as a whole (see Fig. 12).
For the third axis, the mediolateral axis suffices, although if referring to the limb alone, "medial" may refer to the centre of the arm itself.


Note:
(1) Rarely used.
(2) Strictly relative term, used with other locational descriptors.