HCV has a high rate of replication with approximately one trillion particles produced each day in an infected individual. Due to lack of proofreading by the HCV RNA polymerase, HCV also has an exceptionally high mutation rate, a factor that may help it elude the host's immune response
HCV mainly replicates within hepatocytes in the liver, although there is controversial evidence for replication in lymphocytes or monocytes. By mechanisms of host tropism, the viruses reach these proper locations. Circulating HCV particles bind to receptors on the surfaces of hepatocytes and subsequently enter the cells. Two putative HCV receptors are CD81 and human scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-BI). However, these receptors are found throughout the body. The identification of hepatocyte-specific cofactors that determine observed HCV liver tropism are currently under investigation.