USAGE:
PARTICIPIAL PHRASE dùng để rút gọn cho một RELATIVE CLAUSE.

PATTERN: ...Noun +PARTICIPIAL PHRASE hay RELATIVE CLAUSE modifying(which modifies) cho Noun.

Example:

This (converting ingested food, eliminating solid waste...) is the complex process involving ingestion,matstication, bulk transport, storage, mixing, digestion, and absorption of nutrients coordinated with production, storage, transport, an carefully timed release of digestive enzymes and bile acids.

1.
-"...the complex process (NOUN) involving..." (PARTICIPIAL PHRASE )
means:
-" the complex process (NOUN) which involves" (RELATIVE CAUSE)...
2.
-"...absorption of nutrients (NOUN) coordinated with..." (PARTICIPIAL PHRASE).
means:
-"...absorption of nutrients (NOUN) which are coordinated with...(RELATIVE CAUSE) "