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nmttruc
15-04-11, 02:11 AM
Cyanosis resultes from excessive concentration of unoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood.
http://i933.photobucket.com/albums/ad176/thientruc8908/traub-nov07-cyanosis.jpg
Central cyanosis caused by:

Right to left cardiac shunting
Hematologic disorders
Pulmonary disease

Occur :

Anywhere in the skin.
The mucous membrane of mouth, lips, conjunctivae
.
Peripheral cyanosis caused by:

Vasoconstrictions
Reduced cardiac output
Vascular occlusion
Appear on: exposed areas such as finger, nail beds, feet, nose, ears.
Nonpathologic cyanosis result from environmental factors.
MEDICAL CAUSES:


Arteriosclerotic occlusive disease chronic
Blast lung injury
Bronchietasis
Buerger’s disease
COPD
Deep vein thrombosis
Heart failure
Lung cancer
Peripheral arterial occlusion acute
Pneumonia
Pneumothorax
Polycythemia vera
Pulmonary edema
Pulmonary embolism
Raynaud’s disease
Shock
Sleep apnea

tham khao: http://hpathy.com/homeopathy-papers/fingernails-and-what-they-reveal/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanosis
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/303533-overview

nguyentrinh
15-04-11, 10:30 PM
Ask the following questions:
(1) history of drug ingestion?
(2) the cyanosis is limited to 1 limb: suspect an arterial embolism or phlebothrombosis?
(3) the cyanosis is limited to the limbs (Raynaud's disease, shock,...) or it is generalized?
(4) is there associated dyspnea?
(5) is the patient a child or an adult?
(6) is there a heart murmur or cardiomegaly?

nguyentrinh

nmttruc
19-04-11, 02:34 AM
(1) history of drug ingestion?
The drug and subtances may cause methemoglobinemia, sulfhemoglobinemia
Methemoglobinemia:

Acetanilid
Alloxan
Aniline
Arsine
Benzene derivatives
Benzocaine
Bivalent copper
Bismuth subnitrate
Bupivacaine hydrochloride
Chlorates
Chloroquine
Chromates
Clofazimine
Dapsone
Dimethyl sulfoxide
Dinitrophenol
Exhaust fumes
Ferricyanide
Flutamide
Hydroxylamine
Lidocaine hydrochloride
Metoclopramide hydrochloride
Methylene blue
Naphthalene
Nitrates
Nitric oxide
Nitrites
Nitrofuran
Nitroglycerin
Sodium nitroprusside
Paraquat
Phenacetin
Phenazopyridine hydrochloride
Phenol
Phenytoin
Prilocaine hydrochloride
Primaquine phosphate
Rifampin
Silver nitrate
Sodium valproate
Smoke inhalation
Sulfasalazine
Sulfonamides
Trinitrotoluene


Sulfhemoglobinemia:

acetanilid
phenacetin
nitrates
trinitrotoluene
sulfur compounds (mainly sulphonamides, sulfasalazine)

(2) the cyanosis is limited to 1 limb: suspect an arterial embolism or phlebothrombosis?
An arterial embolism may be caused by one or more clots. The clots can get stuck in an artery and block blood flow. The blockage starves tissues of blood and oxygen, which can result in damage or tissue death (necrosis).
Arterial emboli often occur in the legs and feet
Phlebothrombosis - thrombosis of a vein without prior inflammation of the vein; associated with sluggish blood flow (as in prolonged bedrest or pregnancy or surgery) or with rapid coagulation of the blood

nguồn :http://www.thefreedictionary.com/phlebothrombosis
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1071541/
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/204178-overview

PS: còn 3 câu nữa em xin trả lời sau :D:D

nguyentrinh
19-04-11, 03:01 PM
Và đó cũng chính là 6 câu hỏi chúng ta sẽ phải trả lời khi khám bệnh nhân có cyanosis.

nguyentrinh