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Same
16-08-09, 11:20 PM
The urachus is an embryological canal connecting the urinary bladder of the fetus with the allantois, a structure that contributes to the formation of the umbilical cord. The lumen (inside) of the urachus is normally obliterated during embryonic development, transforming the urachus into a solid cord, a functionless remnant. The urachus lies in the space of Retzius, between the transversalis fascia anteriorly and the peritoneum posteriorly.

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/08/01/health/adam/14002.jpg

http://www.ul.ie/~equines/Lecture%2013-14%20Early%20Events%20in%20Pregnancy%20Ctd_files/image010.jpg

Formation
The vesico-urethral portion of the urogenital sinus absorbs the ends of the Wolffian ducts and the associated ends of the renal diverticula, and these give rise to the trigone of the bladder and part of the prostatic urethra. The remainder of the vesico-urethral portion forms the body of the bladder and part of the prostatic urethra; its apex is prolonged to the umbilicus as a narrow canal, which later is obliterated and becomes the median umbilical ligament (urachus). Note: The two medial umbilical ligaments are the obliterated umbilical arteries.


Pathology
Failure for the lumen of the urachus to be filled in leaves a patent (open) urachus. The telltale sign is leakage of urine through the umbilicus. A patent urachus needs to be surgically removed. There are four anatomical cases


Urachal cyst: there is no connection between the bladder and the umbilicus
Urachal fistula: there is free communication between the bladder and umbilicus
Urachal diverticulum: the pouch opens toward the bladder
Urachal sinus: the pouch opens toward the umbilicus

Same
16-08-09, 11:31 PM
1.Urachal cyst
Such cyst is found somewhere along the allantois canal.
The cyst has a small connection to the bladder and can become infected, leading to its diagnosis.

http://www.embryology.ch/images/timgurinary/065pathologie/t6q1_kystouraq.gif


Bladder
Urethra
Urachus(fibrous relict of the allantois)
Navel
Umbilical cyst
Urachal cysts


2.Urachal fistula:
In a urachal fistula a lumen remains over the whole length of the urachus because the atrophy of the allantois fails to take place. The urine flows from the bladder directly through the navel onto the skin.
http://www.embryology.ch/images/timgurinary/065pathologie/t6q3_fistouraq.gif

1.Bladder
2.Urethra
4.Navel
7.Outflow of the urine onto the skin
10.Uninterrupted urachal fistula

3.Urachal diverticulum(Internal fistula)
It is a diverticulum in the upper part of the bladder.

4.Urachal sinus(External fistula)
It is a blind terminating sac that emerges from the navel

http://www.embryology.ch/images/timgurinary/065pathologie/t6q2_fistborgne.gif
1.Bladder
2.Urethra
3.Urachus (fibrous relict of the allantois)
4.Navel
7.Urine outflow onto the skin
8.External fistula (urachal sinus)
9.Internal fistula (urachus diverticulum)

from:www.embryology.ch/.../patholurinary07.html